Microservices and Consumer-Driven Contracts Tests

Due to its distributed nature, integration / end-to-end tests in microservices are hard to do, either by the number of microservices required to cover the test case or by the time it takes to run them. A good alternative to solve the problem are the consumer-driven contracts tests.

Consumer-Driven Contracts tests focus on the contract established between two services but from the point of view of the consumer. Consider the following scenario:

The Profile Service is responsible to store and provide information about users of the application like their contact information, addresses, metadata, avatar, etc and the E-Mail Service is responsible to send e-mails based on a profile id. In order to send the e-mail the E-Mail Service needs to load the current data of the profile but not all data, the only information it needs is the profile name and e-mail address.

In the scenario above the E-Mail Service is a consumer of the Profile Service. The E-Mail Service expects that the Profile Service is going to send the name and the e-mail address of the profile in a specific format, there is a contract established between them. The Profile Service has its unit and service tests to ensure all profile data is returned based on its internal business logic, whenever the Profile Service changes the returned data its unit and service tests will break, e.g. the birth date was a required information and from now on it is not available anymore on the Profile Service. Even when a change in the Profile Service breaks its tests doesn’t mean that the contracts between the Profile Service and others are broken, in the scenario above the birth date wasn’t an expected value by the E-Mail Service.

A Consumer-Driven Contract test would check if the Profile Service returns only the information that the E-Mail Service needs. Back to the example above, if the Profile Service from now on doesn’t return the e-mail address then the Consumer-Driven Contract test will fail. The failure of the Consumer-Driven Contract test doesn’t mean that the Profile Service implementation is not correct, it means there is a breaking change between Profile Service and E-Mail Service. Based on the failure of the test the E-Mail Service team must be notified in order to adapt E-Mail Service to the new contract.

The Consumer-Driven Contract tests should be part of the continuos integration / deployment pipeline of the producer service. Ideally the tests must be developed by the team that owns the producer with the help of the team that own the consumer.

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